Chapter 4

Term Definition
Mitosis cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus.
asexual reproduction a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism.
zygote new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.
diploid cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs.
haploid cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells.
chromosome a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material.
meiosis process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organism.
Cell Cycle Series of events that takes place from one cell division to the next.
Interphase most of the life of any cell is spent in this period of cell growth and development.
Regeneration The process that uses cell division to regrow body parts.
Fertilization Joining of an egg and a sperm.
mutation Any permanent change in genetic material of a cell.
gene a section of DNA on a chromosome.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms; made up of two twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases.
RNA ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries the codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes.